as his/her participation is a given, since he/she is a member of the group. 44 When I was preparing to conduct my ethnographic study with the Muscogee (Creek) women of Oklahoma, my professor, Valerie fennell, told me that I should take the attitude of "treat me like a little child who knows nothing so that my informants would teach. Ethical Issues, when a respondent is presented with a questionnaire, it is fairly obvious that research is taken place, so informed consent isnt normally an issue as long as researchers are honest about the purpose of the research. Bernard notes that those anthropologists who are in the field for extended periods of time are better able to obtain information of a sensitive nature, such as information about witchcraft, sexuality, political feuds, etc. This paper, while not wholly inclusive of all that has been written about this type of field work methods, presents an overview of what is known about it, including its various definitions, history, and purposes, the stances of the researcher, and information about how. 22 merriam (1998) calls the stance of participant observer a "schizophrenic activity" (p.103 because the researcher participates in the setting under study, but not to the extent that he/she becomes too absorbed to observe and analyze what is happening. Also it is not always representative of the sampling frame.
Advantages and disadvantages of participant observation essay
This process of hanging out involves meeting and conversing with people to develop relationships over an extended period of time. Firstly, PO involves the researcher participating in the day to day lives of the respondents, and it typically takes place over extended periods of time sometimes over months or even years. The first stage is the stage at which the researcher is a stranger who is learning the social rules and language, making herself/himself known to the community, so they will begin to teach her/him how to behave appropriately in that culture. Subjectivity and reflexivity in the social sciences: epistemic windows and methodical consequences 30 paragraphs. "Cultural systems are not just rules for behavior, ways of surviving, or straitjackets to constrict free expression. Although questionnaires are a relatively cheap form of gathering data, it might be necessary to offer incentives for people to return them. They suggest using a nested sampling frame to determine differences in knowledge about a topic. Kottak (1994) defines enculturation as "the social process by which culture is learned and transmitted across generations" (p.16).
One should also consider beginning to do some writing as fieldwork proceeds. They are instructed to number the photographs and take notes as they take pictures to help them keep the photos organized in the right sequence. On the other hand, over half of the respondents stated that management exercised considerable control over group decision making and the implementation of decisions (Geary and Dobbins 2006:11). Further, I have given them copies of my work for their library. Marshall, Anne Batten, Suzanne (2004, September). He/she should make a habit of including in one's field notes such specifics as day, date, and time, along with a simple coding system for keeping track of entries, and reflections on and about one's mood, personal reactions, and random thoughts, as these may help. In the second stage, one begins to merge with the crowd and stand out less as an intruder, what Demunck and sobo call the "acquaintance" stage.