steps in the development of literacy (Teale, 1985). Since the child will complete the lessons in print anyway, applying the same skills in braille will extend instructional time only minimally (about 25) because there are more shared similarities than differences in reading in print and in braille. The student will continue to develop basic reading skills in print, while instruction in braille will focus on "cracking" a new code. One of the most valuable programs is the Mangold Program of Tactile Perception and Braille Letter Recognition (Mangold, 1977)a carefully sequenced set of materials that teaches dissertation chapters plan efficient and independent hand-movement skills, combined with the quick discrimination and recognition of braille letters. The teacher explains that "talking writing" is an acceptable form of writing, but it can be read only by the writer. Tribes never gave up the sovereignty of the education of their students. Were all on our own here, he said. The following school year, the blind student, Abby, and another friend asked me to start a braille class. Those systemic issues have produced a disjointed system that has even clogged up the delivery of required materials, including textbooks. One day I found Lucky squeezing glue all over the cover of one book. But gradually the pieces begin to emerge, sentences, words, letters. For some students, a decision on the appropriate reading medium may be made relatively early in the readiness phase, but additional information may be needed for others.
Lack of interest in reading among students essay
Early writing attempts may consist only of the child's name and the beginning letter of a key word. At what distance and of what size? A list of these concepts was developed as a class project in a concept development course for teachers and orientation and mobility instructors of the visually handicapped at San Francisco State University. Students were fascinated by the knotted string and wooden letter alphabets, as well as the talking electronic braille keyboard my sixth-grade student used to take notes in class. As computer courses become more and more widespread throughout the educational system, it is likely that students will have exposure to them when appropriate access devices are available. Three times a yearin September, January, and Junea more structured evaluation is suggested. Children who are unable to press the braillewriter keys without rocking their whole bodies back and forth may benefit from standing and writing at a counter of appropriate height to give them increased leverage. (See Figure.3.) From a discussion with the student, it was determined that she was not familiar with the components of a city block, so the lessons began with that point in the analysis. Then another volunteer offered to do this transcribing for. (the) guiea pig is my fbrt I (like) (the) guiea pig (so) (much) (the) guiea pig my fvrt anml I w(sh)t I (had) a guiea pig I (would) tk kv (of) a gu(in)ea pig Other examples of minilessons that are taught to visually impaired writers. As the children encounter common contractions in their reading, they begin to use them naturally in their writing. Other functional words may be learned to facilitate integration into a work setting.
Teacher Practices that Impact Reading Motivation Reading
Improvement of reading comprehension through computer
Reprints Determining the Reading Medium for Students with